Solution-Class-11-Science-Biology-Chapter-3-Kingdom Plantae-Maharashtra Board

Kingdom Plantae

Class-11-Science-Biology-Chapter-3-Maharashtra Board


Question 1.

Choose correct option

A. Which is the dominant phase in Pteridophytes?

a. Capsule

b. Gametophyte

c. Sporophyte

d. Embryo

Answer :

(c) Sporophyte

B. The tallest living gymnosperm among the following is ..........

a. Sequoia sempervirens

b. Taxodium mucronatum

c. Zamia pygmaea

d. Ginkgo biloba

Answer :

(a) Sequoia sempervirens

C. In Bryophytes ..........

a. Sporophyte and gametophyte generations are independent

b. Sporophyte is partially dependent upon gametophyte

c. Gametophyte is dependent upon Sporophyte

d. Inconspicuous gametophyte

Answer :

(b) sporophyte is partially dependent upon gametophyte

D. A characteristic of Angiosperm is .........

a. Collateral vascular bundles

b. Radial vascular bundles

c. Seed formation

d. Double fertilization

Answer :

(d) Double fertilization

E. Angiosperms differ from Gymnosperms in having ..........

a. Vessels in wood

b. Mode of nutrition

c. Siphonogamy

d. Enclosed seed

Answer :

(a) Monocotyledons and (d) Enclosed seed - Both

Question 2.

How you place the pea, jawar and fern at its proper systematic position? Draw a flow chart with example of.

Answer :

Question 3.

Complete the following table

Groups of algae Chlorophyceae Phaeophyceae Rhodophyceae
1. Stored food Starch    
2. Cell Wall   Cellulose and algin  
3. Major pigments     Chl- a, d and Phycoerythrin


Answer :

Groups of algae Chlorophyceae Phaeophyceae Rhodophyceae
1. Stored food Starch Mannitol, laminarin Floridean starch
2. Cell Wall Cellulose Cellulose and algin Cellulose, pectin
3. Major pigments Chl-a, b Chl-a, c, fucoxanthin Chl- a, d and Phycoerythrin

Question 4.

Differentiate between Dicotyledonae and Monocotyledonae based on the following characters

  1. Type of roots
  2. Venation in the leaves
  3. Symmetry of flower

Answer :

Characters Dicotyledonae Monocotyledonae
Type of roots Tap roots Fibrous roots
Venation in the leaves Reticulate Parallel
Symmetry of flower Tetramerous & Pentamerous Trimerous

Question 5.

Answer the following questions

A. We observe that land becomes barren soon after monsoon. But in the next monsoon it flourishes again with varieties we observed in season earlier. How you think it takes place?

Answer :

  • After monsoon, plants like mosses (bryophytes), ferns (pteridophytes), small herbaceous plants, etc become dry, due to which land becomes barren.
  • However, spores of bryophytes, pteridophytes and seeds of herbaceous plants, grass remain in barren land.
  • During next monsoon, these spores and seeds germinate due to availability of water and other favourable conditions.
  • Bryophytes and pteridophytes require water for reproduction. Hence they flourish during monsoon season.
  • Along with bryophytes and pteridophytes varieties of higher plants like grasses, some seasonal herbs or shrubs grow on barren land during monsoon due to favourable conditions.

B. Fern is a vascular plant. Yet it is not considered a Phanerogams. Why?

Answer :

  • Fern belongs to sub-kingdom Cryptogamae.
  • Cryptogams produce spores but do not produce seeds.
  • Also, in cryptogams the sex organs are concealed.
  • Phanerogams are seed producing plants and their sex organs are visible.

Hence, fem is a vascular plant. Yet it is not considered a Phanerogams.

C. Chlamydomonas is microscopic whereas Sargassum is macroscopic; both are algae. Which characters of these plants includes them in one group?

Answer :

  • Both Chlamydomonas and Sargassum belong to division Thallophyta.
  • Members of Thallophyta range from unicellular (e.g. Chlamydomonas) to multicellular (e.g. Sargassum).
  • Both are aquatic plants containing photosynthetic pigments.
  • In both Chlamydomonas and Sargassum plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves.
  • The stored food is mainly in the form of starch and its other forms.
  • Cell wall is made up of cellulose and other components. Due to these characters, both Chlamydomonas and Sargassum are included in one group i.e. Thallophyta.

Question 6.

Girth of a Maize plant does not increase over a period of time. Justify

Answer :

  • Maize plant belongs to class monocotyledonae.
  • In monocotyledonous plants, vascular bundles are closed type.
  • Thus, cambium is absent between xylem and phloem, due to which secondary growth does not occur in these plants.
  • Increase in girth of a stem occurs by secondary growth.
  • Thus, girth of a maize plant does not increase over a period of time.

Question 7.

Radha observed a plant in rainy season on the compound wall of her school. The plant did not have true roots but rootlike structures were present. To which group the plant may belong?

Answer :

The plant observed by Radha belongs may belong to division Bryophyta, as it shows root like structures i.e. rhizoids and absence of vascular tissue.

Question 8.

Draw neat labelled diagrams

A. Spirogyra

Answer :

B. Chlamydomonas

Answer :

C. Funaria

Answer :

D. Nephrolepis

Answer :

E. Haplontic and haplodiplontic life cycle

Answer :

Question 9.

Identify the plant groups on the basis of following features.

  1. Seed producing plants
  2. Spore producing plants
  3. Plant body undifferentiated into Root, Stem and leaves
  4. Plant need water for fertilization
  5. First vascular plants

Answer :

  1. Seed producing plants : Phanerogams (Angiospermae and Gymnospermae)
  2. Spore producing plants : Cryptogams (Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta)
  3. Plant body undifferentiated into Root, Stem and leaves : Thallophyta, Bryophyta
  4. Plant need water for fertilization : Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta
  5. First vascular plants : Pteridophytes

Practical / Project :

1. Study the Nephrolepis plant in detail.

Answer :

  • These plants have neither fruits nor flowers.
  • Some ferns are used as food, medicine or as ornamental plants.

  • Nephrolepis belongs to division pteridophyta.
  • They grow abundantly in cool, shady, moist places. ,
  • Roots are adventitious (fibrous) growing from the underground stem.
  • Leaves are well developed on the stem (Rhizome).
  • They show presence of well-developed conducting system for transportation of water and food.
  • They reproduce asexually by spores produced within sporangia, which are present in sori. These sori are located along the posterior surface of leaflets.

2. Study the coralloid roots, scale leaf and megasporophyll of cycas in detail.

Answer :

Coralloid roots of Cycas:

  • Coralloid roots of Cycas show association with blue green algae for nitrogen fixation.
  • Coralloid roots are coral-like, dichotomously branched and fleshy. They grow upward toward the surface of the soil. These roots arise from the lateral branches of normal roots.

Scale leaf of Cycas:

  • In Cycas leaves are dimorphic i.e. foliage leaves and scale leaves. Scale leaves are minute, membranous and brown. These are non- photosynthetic and provide protection to the stem apex.

Megasporophyll of Cycas:

  • Megasporophylls are usually arranged in compact structures called female cones or female strobili.
  • Megasporophyll contains megasporangia (ovule) which produce megaspores.

Question 10.

Observe the following diagram. Correct it and write the information in your words.

Answer :

  • The given figure indicates alternation of generation.
  • The life cycle of a plant includes two generations, sporophytic (diploid = 2n) and gametophytic (haploid = n)
  • Some special diploid cells of sporophyte divide by meiosis to produce haploid cells.
  • These haploid cells divide mitotically to produce gametophyte.
  • On maturation, gametophyte produces male and female gametes which fuse during fertilization and produce diploid zygote.
  • Diploid zygote divides by mitosis and forms diploid sporophyte.

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